今天看到了这个文章，终于知道了各种版本号的命名和由来。 贴在这里。 原文见： http://semver.org/
刚才搜索了一下， Semantic Versioning的中文翻译很多版本， 有叫“语义法版本控制”的，有叫”语义法版本命名“的，也有”规范命名法“的。 这里 Semantic是语义（？）， Versioning 肯定是版本命名的意思了。 所以想了一下，我也不翻译了，直接叫Semantic Versioning.
使用这套命名法，必须要有公共的API。 Software using Semantic Versioning MUST declare a public API. This API could be declared in the code itself or exist strictly in documentation. However it is done, it should be precise and comprehensive.
正常的版本号应该形如 x.y.z. x,y,z 都必须是正数或者0. X： 主要版本，Y：次要版本号，Z： 补丁号。 增长的次序都是每次+1
A normal version number MUST take the form X.Y.Z where X, Y, and Z are non-negative integers. X is the major version, Y is the minor version, and Z is the patch version. Each element MUST increase numerically by increments of one. For instance: 1.9.0 -> 1.10.0 -> 1.11.0.
When a major version number is incremented, the minor version and patch version MUST be reset to zero. When a minor version number is incremented, the patch version MUST be reset to zero. For instance: 1.1.3 -> 2.0.0 and 2.1.7 -> 2.2.0.
Once a versioned package has been released, the contents of that version MUST NOT be modified. Any modifications must be released as a new version.
Major version zero (0.y.z) is for initial development. Anything may change at any time. The public API should not be considered stable.
Version 1.0.0 defines the public API. The way in which the version number is incremented after this release is dependent on this public API and how it changes.
Patch version Z (x.y.Z | x > 0) MUST be incremented if only backwards compatible bug fixes are introduced. A bug fix is defined as an internal change that fixes incorrect behavior.
Minor version Y (x.Y.z | x > 0) MUST be incremented if new, backwards compatible functionality is introduced to the public API. It MUST be incremented if any public API functionality is marked as deprecated. It MAY be incremented if substantial new functionality or improvements are introduced within the private code. It MAY include patch level changes. Patch version MUST be reset to 0 when minor version is incremented.
Major version X (X.y.z | X > 0) MUST be incremented if any backwards incompatible changes are introduced to the public API. It MAY include minor and patch level changes. Patch and minor version MUST be reset to 0 when major version is incremented.
A pre-release version MAY be denoted by appending a dash and a series of dot separated identifiers immediately following the patch version. Identifiers MUST be comprised of only ASCII alphanumerics and dash [0-9A-Za-z-]. Pre-release versions satisfy but have a lower precedence than the associated normal version. Examples: 1.0.0-alpha, 1.0.0-alpha.1, 1.0.0-0.3.7, 1.0.0-x.7.z.92.
A build version MAY be denoted by appending a plus sign and a series of dot separated identifiers immediately following the patch version or pre-release version. Identifiers MUST be comprised of only ASCII alphanumerics and dash [0-9A-Za-z-]. Build versions satisfy and have a higher precedence than the associated normal version. Examples: 1.0.0+build.1, 1.3.7+build.11.e0f985a.
Precedence MUST be calculated by separating the version into major, minor, patch, pre-release, and build identifiers in that order. Major, minor, and patch versions are always compared numerically. Pre-release and build version precedence MUST be determined by comparing each dot separated identifier as follows: identifiers consisting of only digits are compared numerically and identifiers with letters or dashes are compared lexically in ASCII sort order. Numeric identifiers always have lower precedence than non-numeric identifiers. Example: 1.0.0-alpha < 1.0.0-alpha.1 < 1.0.0-beta.2 < 1.0.0-beta.11 < 1.0.0-rc.1 < 1.0.0-rc.1+build.1 < 1.0.0 < 1.0.0+0.3.7 < 1.3.7+build < 1.3.7+build.2.b8f12d7 < 1.3.7+build.11.e0f985a.